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Latest research

Every month we collate a selection of the latest clinically-relevant research to help you keep up to date with the most important developments in the field of prostate cancer.

Articles have been selected based on impact factor of the journal, relevance to UK clinical practice and general interest. You may be able to access the full text from your Trust's library service or via ATHENS registration. Information from PubMed explains other ways to access full text articles. 

Research round up from the clinic - top four articles from the last month:

  1. Genetic Testing could identify men at six-fold increased risk of prostate cancer

  2. A randomized phase 3 study of abiraterone acetate (AA) in prostate cancer patients without prior chemotherapy

  3. Does new research show some steroid treatments can drive prostate cancer?

  4. Factors driving inequality in prostate cancer survival

See below for more articles of interest published online in the last month (September and October 2014).

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In-depth research round up from the clinic

1. Genetic Testing could identify men at six-fold increased risk of prostate cancer

This genome-wide association study, conducted by Al Olama et al., looked at understanding the genetic association with prostate cancer risk. The international study identified 23 new genetic variants associated with increased risk of the disease.

The authors included scientists from The Institute of Cancer Research, London, the University of Cambridge, as well as across the United States. Al Olama et al. conducted a meta-analysis of genetic variants in almost 90,000 men in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. The authors reported 23 new variants explained a third of the familial risk for prostate cancer in European-ancestry populations. Data from this study now brings the total number of common genetic variants linked to prostate cancer to 100, and testing for them can identify the one per cent of men of European ancestry whose risk of prostate cancer is six times higher than the population average, or the ten per cent whose risk is three times higher. A full Press release from Prostate Cancer UK can be found here.

2. A randomized phase 3 study of abiraterone acetate (AA) in prostate cancer patients without prior chemotherapy

In this phase 3 trial, Ryan et al. investigated the overall survival and safety outcomes of abiraterone acetate in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients, without prior chemotherapy. The final results presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology 2014 conference appear to confirm that abiraterone significantly improves the survival of men with advanced prostate cancer when given before chemotherapy. Prostate Cancer UK look forward to seeing the findings validated and published in a peer-reviewed journal, which will of course be shared on our Latest Research page.

3. Does new research show some steroid treatments can drive prostate cancer?

Early stage research conducted at The Institute of Cancer research London, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation and University of Trento, Italy by Carreira et al., looked at how testing tumour DNA could allow doctors to follow the progression of prostate cancer and get an accurate picture of a man’s cancer development – and therefore match treatment to how an individual man’s cancer is developing. The group used their new technique in 16 men with advanced prostate cancer, who were receiving abiraterone as part of their treatment. In three of the 16 men the test showed that some of the sites of their cancers had developed mutations in the androgen receptors. A full behind the headlines report by Prostate Cancer UK can be found here.

4. Factors driving inequality in prostate cancer survival

Using data from the National Cancer Registry Ireland, of men diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1998-2009, Burns et al. examined the role of a range of clinical and socio-demographic variables in prostate cancer survival. The researchers concluded patients treated in a private healthcare setting had an average of 40% reduced risk of mortality compared to those who were treated solely in the public setting. In addition, patients who accessed public healthcare provision from the lowest socio-economic group had around 21-25% increased risk of death compared to those from the highest socio-economic group. Due to availability of data the study examined all-cause mortality. The authors’ highlighted care is warranted in the interpretation of their results.

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Active Surveillance

Extended Follow-Up and Risk Factors for Disease Reclassification from a Large Active Surveillance Cohort for Localized Prostate Cancer.

Welty CJ, Cowan JE, Nguyen H, Shinohara K, Perez N, Greene KL, et al.

J Urol. 2014 Sep 24

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Advanced Disease

Final overall survival (OS) analysis of COU-AA-302, a randomized phase 3 study of abiraterone acetate (AA) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients (pts) without prior chemotherapy

Ryan C, Smith M, Fizazi K, Miller K.

European Society for Medical Oncology 753O - [conference abstract].

Assessment of the bone scan index in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of tasquinimod in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).

Armstrong AJ, Kaboteh R, Carducci MA, Damber J-E, Stadler WM, Hansen M, et al.

Urol Oncol. 2014 Sep 15;

Positive and negative mood in men with advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: considering the role of social support and stress.

Benedict C, Dahn JR, Antoni MH, Traeger L, Kava B, Bustillo N, et al.

Psychooncology. 2014 Sep 23;

Abiraterone acetate for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy: final analysis of a multicentre, open-label, early-access protocol trial.

Sternberg CN, Castellano D, Daugaard G, Géczi L, Hotte SJ, Mainwaring PN, et al.

Lancet Oncol. 2014 Sep 18

Long-term Survival of Extremely Advanced Prostate Cancer Patients Diagnosed with Prostate-specific Antigen over 500 ng/ml.

Sugihara T, Yu C, Kattan MW, Yasunaga H, Ihara H, Onozawa M, et al.

Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2014 Sep 19

Prognostic Significance of Time to Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Nadir and Its Relationship to Survival Beyond Time to PSA Nadir for Prostate Cancer Patients With Bone Metastases After Primary Androgen Deprivation Therapy.

Teoh JYC, Tsu JHL, Yuen SKK, Chan SYS, Chiu PKF, Lee W-M, et al.

Ann Surg Oncol. 2014 Sep 19

CAST: A retrospective analysis of cabazitaxel and abiraterone acetate sequential treatment in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel.

Wissing MD, Coenen JLLM, van den Berg P, Westgeest HM, van den Eertwegh AJM, van Oort IM, et al.

Int J Cancer. 2014 Sep 20;

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Behaviour/Psychology

Does elevated body mass index (BMI) affect the clinical outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP): A prospective cohort study.

Gu X, Araki M, Wong C.

Int J Surg Lond Engl. 2014 Sep 12;12(10):1055–60.

A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Tobacco Use and Prostate Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Prospective Cohort Studies.

Islami F, Moreira DM, Boffetta P, Freedland SJ.

Eur Urol. 2014 Sep 18;

Poor Glycemic Control is Associated with Reduced Prostate-Specific Antigen Concentrations in Men with Type 1 Diabetes.

Sarma AV, Hotaling J, Dunn RL, Cleary PA, Braffett BH, Kim C, et al.

J Urol. 2014 Sep 10

Obesity Increases the Risk for High-grade Prostate Cancer: Results from the REDUCE study.

Vidal AC, Howard LE, Moreira DM, Castro-Santamaria R, Andriole GL, Freedland SJ.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2014 Sep 27

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BPH/Prostatitis/PIN

An European Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing 180-W GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: 12-Months Results of the GOLIATH-study.

Bachmann A, Tubaro A, Barber N, d’ Ancona F F, Muir G, Witzsch U, et al.

J Urol. 2014 Sep 11;

Green Light Laser (XPS) Photoselective Vapo-Enucleation of the Prostate versus Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate for Treatment of Symptomatic Benign Prostate Hyperplasia: A Randomized Controlled Study.

Elshal AM, Elkoushy MA, El-Nahas AR, Shoma AM, Nabeeh A, Carrier S, et al.

J Urol. 2014 Sep 24;

A randomized controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of tamsulosin monotherapy and its combination with mirabegron on patients with overactive bladder induced by benign prostatic obstruction.

Ichihara K, Masumori N, Fukuta F, Tsukamoto T, Iwasawa A, Tanaka Y.

J Urol. 2014 Sep 21;

Prostate cancer incidence, clinical stage and survival in relation to obesity: A prospective cohort study in Denmark.

Møller H, Roswall N, Van Hemelrijck M, Larsen SB, Cuzick J, Holmberg L, et al.

Int J Cancer. 2014 Sep 27;

Efficacy and Safety of the Urolift® System for the Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Symptoms: Systematic Review.

Sánchez-Gómez LM, Polo-deSantos M, Gómez-Sancha F, Luengo-Matos S.

Actas Urol Esp. 2014 Sep 23

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Diagnosis/Screening

Hospital admissions after transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate in men diagnosed with prostate cancer: A database analysis in England.

Anastasiadis E, van der Meulen J, Emberton M.

Int J Urol. 2014 Sep 26;

Insignificant disease among men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer.

Hong SK, Vertosick E, Sjoberg DD, Scardino PT, Eastham JA.

World J Urol. 2014 Sep 27;

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Genetics

A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer.

Al Olama AA, Kote-Jarai Z, Berndt SI, Conti DV, Schumacher F, Han Y, et al.

Nat Genet. 2014 Oct;46(10):1103–9.

Tumor clone dynamics in lethal prostate cancer.

Carreira S, Romanel A, Goodall J, Grist E, Ferraldeschi R, Miranda S, et al.

Sci Transl Med. 2014 Sep 17;6(254):254ra125–254ra125.

Additive Interactions Between Susceptibility Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Identified in Genome-Wide Association Studies and Breast Cancer Risk Factors in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

Joshi AD, Lindström S, Hüsing A, Barrdahl M, VanderWeele TJ, Campa D, et al.

Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Sep 25;

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Prostatectomy

Influence of radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer on work status and working life 3 years after surgery.

Dahl S, Loge JH, Berge V, Dahl AA, Cvancarova M, Fosså SD.

J Cancer Surviv Res Pract. 2014 Sep 13;

Cytoreductive Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with prostate cancer and low volume skeletal metastases - results of a feasibility and case-control study.

Heidenreich A, Pfister D, Porres D.

J Urol. 2014 Sep 21;

Oncologic and quality-of-life outcomes with wide resection in robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

Yang DY, Monn MF, Kaimakliotis HZ, Cary KC, Cheng L, Koch MO.

Urol Oncol. 2014 Sep 15;

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Qualiy of Life

Factors Driving Inequality in Prostate Cancer Survival: A Population Based Study.

Burns RM, Sharp L, Sullivan FJ, Deady SE, Drummond FJ, O′Neill C.

PLoS ONE. 2014 Sep 9;9(9):e106456.

Quality of life improvement for patients treated with degarelix versus leuprorelin in advanced prostate cancer.

Lee D, Nielsen SK, van Keep M, Andersson F, Greene D.

J Urol. 2014 Sep 25;

Long-term Health-related Quality of Life After Primary Treatment for Localized Prostate Cancer: Results from the CaPSURE Registry.

Punnen S, Cowan JE, Chan JM, Carroll PR, Cooperberg MR.

Eur Urol. 2014 Sep 18;

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Risk Factors

Incorporation of Detailed Family History from the Swedish Family-Cancer Database into the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator.

Grill S, Fallah M, Leach RJ, Thompson IM, Freedland S, Hemminki K, et al.

J Urol. 2014 Sep 18;

The relationship between total testosterone levels and prostate cancer: A review of the continuing controversy.

Klap J, Schmid M, Loughlin KR.

J Urol. 2014 Sep 23;

Relationship Between Male Pattern Baldness and the Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer: An Analysis of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

Zhou CK, Pfeiffer RM, Cleary SD, Hoffman HJ, Levine PH, Chu LW, et al.

J Clin Oncol. 2014 Sep 15

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Side Effects

Sexual potency preservation and quality of life after prostate brachytherapy and low-dose tadalafil.

Pugh TJ, Mahmood U, Swanson DA, Munsell MF, Wang R, Kudchadker RJ, et al.

Brachytherapy. 2014 Sep 22;

Surgery for stress urinary incontinence due to presumed sphincter deficiency after prostate surgery.

Silva LA, Andriolo RB, Atallah AN, da Silva EM.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Sep 27;9:CD008306.

Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Is Associated with Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality: A Meta-Analysis of Population-Based Observational Studies.

Zhao J, Zhu S, Sun L, Meng F, Zhao L, Zhao Y, et al. PloS One. 2014;9(9):e107516.

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Survival

Prediction of Long-term Other-cause Mortality in Men With Early-stage Prostate Cancer: Results From the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study.

Daskivich TJ, Fan K-H, Koyama T, Albertsen PC, Goodman M, Hamilton AS, et al.

Urology. 2014 Sep 23;

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Treatment

Impact of Adjuvant Radiotherapy on Survival of Patients With Node-Positive Prostate Cancer.

Abdollah F, Karnes RJ, Suardi N, Cozzarini C, Gandaglia G, Fossati N, et al.

J Clin Oncol. 2014 Sep 22;

Identifying Optimal Candidates for Local Treatment of the Primary Tumor Among Patients Diagnosed with Metastatic Prostate Cancer: A SEER-based Study.

Fossati N, Trinh Q-D, Sammon J, Sood A, Larcher A, Sun M, et al.

Eur Urol. 2014 Sep 9;

Incidence of Second Malignancies in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Radical Prostatectomy.

Hamilton SN, Tyldesley S, Hamm J, Jiang WN, Keyes M, Pickles T, et al.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014 Sep 17;

High testosterone levels in prostate tissue obtained by needle biopsy correlate with poor-prognosis factors in prostate cancer patients.

Miyoshi Y, Uemura H, Umemoto S, Sakamaki K, Morita S, Suzuki K, et al.

BMC Cancer. 2014 Sep 26;14(1):717.

Image guided intensity modulated hypofractionated radiotherapy in high-risk prostate cancer patients treated four or five times per week: analysis of toxicity and preliminary results.

Valeriani M, Carnevale A, Osti MF, DE Sanctis V, Agolli L, Maurizi Enrici R.

Radiat Oncol Lond Engl. 2014 Sep 26;9(1):214.