"The urology centre" sign

Latest research

Every month we collate a selection of the latest clinically-relevant research to help you keep up to date with the most important developments in the field of prostate cancer.

Articles have been selected based on impact factor of the journal, relevance to UK clinical practice and general interest. You may be able to access the full text from your Trust's library service or via ATHENS registration. Information from PubMed explains other ways to access full text articles. 

Research round up from the clinic - top four recent articles:

  • Can having a vasectomy increase a man’s risk of aggressive prostate cancer?
  • Prostate screening saves lives, but is it too unreliable for use?
  • Survival Outcomes Following Primary Androgen-Deprivation Therapy for Localised Prostate Cancer
  • Years of life lost as a measure of cancer burden in Norway.

See below for a more in-depth summary of these top four articles and for other articles of interest published online in July and August 2014.


In-depth research round up from the clinic

1. Can having a vasectomy increase a man’s risk of aggressive prostate cancer?

Researchers explore whether having a vasectomy plays a role in increasing a man’s risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer. The study was undertaken at Harvard Medical School and tracked 50,000 men aged between 40 and 75 from 1986 to 2010. Prostate Cancer UK also commented on the study (here).

2. Prostate screening saves lives, but is it too unreliable for use?

According to the long-term results of a major European study involving over 162,000 men, published in The Lancet, screening for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing could reduce deaths from the disease by about a fifth. However, despite this new evidence, doubts as to whether the benefits of screening outweigh the harms remain, and routine PSA screening programmes should not be introduced at this time, the authors concluded. Prostate Cancer UK comment can be found here.

3. Survival Outcomes Following Primary Androgen-Deprivation Therapy for Localised Prostate Cancer.

Lu-Yao and colleagures undertook a population-based study involving more than 65,000 patients aged 66 years or older who diagnosed as having stage T1-T2 prostate cancer. The authors concluded that primary androgen deprivation therapy was not associated with improved long-term survival for older men with localised prostate cancer, and suggested that the therapy should be used only to palliate symptoms of disease or prevent imminent symptoms associated with disease progression.

4. Years of life lost as a measure of cancer burden in Norway.

The severity of cancer is often measured in number of deaths. However, the authors of this study suggested that the number of years of life lost (YLL) may be a more appropriate indicator of the impact of cancer on society. The study results indicated that a third of all YLL in Norway are due to cancer, and the YLL due to lung cancer equals those due to breast, colon and prostate cancer combined. They concluded that reporting YLL accentuates the effect of cancer put on the society, and recommended public health efforts and research funding allocation should be directed at preventing premature death.



Anxiety in the management of localised prostate cancer by active surveillance.

Anderson J, Burney S, Brooker JE, Ricciardelli LA, Fletcher JM, Satasivam P, et al.

BJU Int. 2014. [epub ahead of print]

The effect of smoking on prostate cancer survival: a cohort analysis in Barcelona.

Murta-Nascimento C, Romero AI, Sala M, Lorente JA, Bellmunt J, Rodero NJ, et al.

Eur J Cancer Prev. 2014. [epub ahead of print]

Fear of recurrence: the importance of self-efficacy and satisfaction with care in gay men with prostate cancer.

Torbit LA, Albiani JJ, Crangle CJ, Latini DM, Hart TL.

Psycho-oncology. 2014. [epub ahead of print].

Observational Study of Erectile Dysfunction, Infertility, and Prostate Cancer in Regular Cyclists: Cycling for Health UK Study.

Hollingworth M, Harper A, Hamer M. An

J Mens Health [Internet]. 2014. [epub ahead of print].



A review of the use of tadalafil in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in men with and without erectile dysfunction.

Hatzimouratidis K.

Ther Adv Urol. 2014 Aug;6(4):135–47.



Expected population impacts of discontinued prostate-specific antigen screening.

Gulati R, Tsodikov A, Etzioni R, Hunter-Merrill RA, Gore JL, Mariotto AB, et al.

Cancer. 2014. [epub ahead of print].

Impact of Family History on Prostate Cancer Mortality in Caucasian Men Undergoing PSA-Based Screening.

Liss MA, Chen H, Hemal S, Krane S, Kane CJ, Xu J, et al.

J Urol. 2014. [epub ahead of print].

Transperineal Template-guided Mapping Biopsy Identifies Pathologic Differences Between Very-Low-risk and Low-risk Prostate Cancer: Implications for Active Surveillance.

Merrick GS, Delatore A, Butler WM, Bennett A, Fiano R, Anderson R, et al.

Am J Clin Oncol. 2014. [epub ahead of print].

Screening and prostate cancer mortality: results of the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) at 13 years of follow-up.

Schröder FH, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ, Tammela TLJ, Zappa M, Nelen V, et al.

he Lancet [Internet]. 2014. [epub ahead of print].


Diet / supplements / herbal medicine

Chronic use of NSAIDs and/or Statins does not Impact Longitudinal PSA or PSA velocity in Men at High Risk for Prostate Cancer.

Algotar AM, Behnejad R, Stratton MS, Stratton SP.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev Publ Am Assoc Cancer Res Cosponsored Am Soc Prev Oncol. 2014. [epub ahead of print].

The safety of testosterone supplementation therapy in prostate cancer.

Dupree JM, Langille GM, Khera M, Lipshultz LI.

Nat Rev Urol. 2014. [epub ahead of print].

Statin Drug Use is Not Associated with Prostate Cancer Risk in Men Who are Regularly Screened.

Platz EA, Tangen CM, Goodman PJ, Till C, Parnes HL, Figg WD, et al.

J Urol. 2014 Aug;192(2):379–84.

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d concentrations and risk of prostate cancer: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial.

Schenk JM, Till CA, Tangen CM, Goodman PJ, Song X, Torkko KC, et al.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev Publ. 2014 Aug;23(8):1484–93.


Erectile Dysfunction

Long-term erectile function following permanent seed brachytherapy treatment for localized prostate cancer.

Ong WL, Hindson BR, Beaufort C, Pharoah P, Millar JL.

Radiother Oncol J Eur Soc Ther Radiol Oncol. 2014. [epub ahead of print].


General cancer

Years of life lost as a measure of cancer burden on a national level.

Brustugun OT, Møller B, Helland A.

Br J Cancer. 2014. [epub ahead of print].


Old Age

Management of prostate cancer in older patients: updated recommendations of a working group of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology.

Droz J-P, Aapro M, Balducci L, Boyle H, Van den Broeck T, Cathcart P, et al.

Lancet Oncol. 2014 Aug;15(9):e404–e414.



Does cumulative prostate cancer length in prostate biopsies improve prediction of clinically insignificant cancer at radical prostatectomy in patients eligible for active surveillance?

Chen DJ, Falzarano SM, McKenney JK, Przybycin CG, Reynolds JP, Roma A, et al.

BJU Int. 2014. [epub ahead of print].

Disease-specific death and metastasis do not occur in patients with Gleason score ≤6 on radical prostatectomy.

Kweldam CF, Wildhagen MF, Bangma CH, van Leenders GJLH.

BJU Int. 2014. [epub ahead of print].


Risk Factors

Diabetes mellitus and the risk of mortality among patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of 11 cohort studies.

Cai H, Xu Z, Xu T, Yu B, Zou Q.

Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2014. [epub ahead of print].

Association of body mass index and prostate cancer mortality.

Haque R, Van Den Eeden SK, Wallner LP, Richert-Boe K, Kallakury B, Wang R, et al.

Obes Res Clin Pract. 2014 Aug;8(4):e374–381.

Vasectomy and Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer: A 24-Year Follow-Up Study.

Siddiqui MM, Wilson KM, Epstein MM, Rider JR, Martin NE, Stampfer MJ, et al.

J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2014. [epub ahead of print].



Fifteen-year survival outcomes following primary androgen-deprivation therapy for localized prostate cancer.

Lu-Yao GL, Albertsen PC, Moore DF, et al.

JAMA Intern Med [Internet]. 2014. [epub ahead of print].

American Cancer Society prostate cancer survivorship care guidelines.

Skolarus TA, Wolf AMD, Erb NL, Brooks DD, Rivers BM, Underwood W, et al.

CA Cancer J Clin. 2014 Jul;64(4):225–49.



Enzalutamide Antitumour Activity Against Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Previously Treated with Docetaxel and Abiraterone: A Multicentre Analysis.

Brasso K, Thomsen FB, Schrader AJ, Schmid SC, Lorente D, Retz M, et al.

Eur Urol. 2014. [epub ahead of print].

Physician variation in management of low-risk prostate cancer: A population-based cohort study.

Hoffman KE, Niu J, Shen Y, et al.

JAMA Intern Med [Internet]. 2014. [epub ahead of print].

Salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy: prediction of biochemical outcomes.

Kwon O, Kim KB, Lee YI, Byun S-S, Kim J-S, Lee SE, et al.

PloS One. 2014;9(7):e103574.

Proton therapy for prostate cancer: time for evidence.

The Lancet Oncology.

Lancet Oncol. 2014 Jul;15(8):775.

Is there an anti-androgen withdrawal syndrome with enzalutamide?

Rodriguez-Vida A, Bianchini D, Van Hemelrijck M, Hughes S, Malik Z, Powles T, et al.

BJU Int. 2014. [epub ahead of print].

Hormone and Radiotherapy versus Hormone or Radiotherapy Alone for Non-metastatic Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review with Meta-analyses

Schmidt-Hansen M, Hoskin P, Kirkbride P, Hasler E, Bromham N.

Clin Oncol. 2014. [epub ahead of print].

Dose-escalated Radiation Therapy With and Without Short-course Androgen Deprivation for Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer.

Schreiber D, Rineer J, Surapaneni A, Navo E, Agarwal M, Nwokedi E, et al.

Anticancer Res. 2014 Aug;34(8):4189–93.

Long-term outcome of early stage prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy analysis after a mean follow-up of 7 years.

Yan W, Chen J, Zhou Y, Zhou Z, Mai Z, Ji Z, et al.

SpringerPlus. 2014;3:357.