Your treatment options will depend on whether your cancer
is contained within the prostate gland (localised), has spread just
outside of the prostate (locally advanced) or had spread
to other parts of the body (advanced).
You may have a choice of treatments. Your doctor or specialist
nurse will explain all your treatment options, and help you to
choose the right treatment for you.
The first treatment you have may affect which treatments you can
have in the future, if you need further treatment. Speak to your
doctor or nurse about this.
Active surveillance is a way of monitoring slow-growing prostate cancers which might never progress or cause any symptoms. The aim is to avoid or delay unnecessary treatment which could cause side effects and affect your quality of life. Find out more about Active surveillance
Watchful waiting is a way of monitoring prostate cancer that is not causing any symptoms or problems. The aim is to monitor the cancer over the long term because prostate cancer often grows slowly and may not cause you any symptoms or problems in your lifetime.
Find out more about Watchful waiting
Radical prostatectomy is an operation to remove the prostate gland and the cancer contained within it. You may be suitable for this treatment if your cancer is thought to be contained within the prostate gland and you are otherwise fit and healthy.Find out more about Surgery: radical prostatectomy
External beam radiotherapy uses high energy X-ray beams to treat prostate cancer. The X-ray beams damage the cancer cells and stop them growing. You may have external beam radiotherapy on its own, or alongside permanent seed brachytherapy or temporary brachytherapy (internal radiotherapy). Or you might have it after surgery.Find out more about External beam radiotherapy
Permanent seed brachytherapy involves implanting tiny radioactive seeds into your prostate gland. This is also called low dose rate brachytherapy. Radiation from the seeds destroys cancer cells in the prostate. You may have this treatment on its own or together with external beam radiotherapy or hormone therapy. Find out more about Permanent seed brachytherapy
Hormone therapy helps control prostate cancer by stopping the hormone testosterone from reaching the prostate cancer cells. It does not cure cancer but can keep it under control for many months or years. It can also help to manage symptoms. You might have hormone therapy on its own, or with other treatments such as radiotherapy or brachytherapy.
Find out more about Hormone therapy
Temporary brachytherapy involves inserting a source of high dose-rate radiation into the prostate gland for a few minutes at a time to destroy cancer cells. This is also called high dose rate brachytherapy. You may have this treatment on its own or you together with external beam radiotherapy or hormone therapy.
Find out more about Temporary brachytherapy
HIFU uses high frequency ultrasound waves to heat and destroy cancer cells in the prostate. It‘s newer than some other treatments, and we don’t know as much about how well it works and about the risk of side effects in the long term. Because of this, HIFU is only available in specialist centres in the UK or as part of a clinical trial.Find out more about High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)
Cryotherapy uses freezing and thawing to kill the cancer cells in the prostate . It is also called cryosurgery or cryoablation. It‘s newer than some other treatments, and we don’t know very much about how effective it is at treating prostate cancer in the long-term or how it may affect your everyday life. Because of this, cryotherapy is only available in specialist centres in the UK, or as part of a clinical trial
Find out more about Cryotherapy
Hormone therapy can keep prostate cancer under control for months or years. But over time, cancer may start to grow again. If this happens, there are further treatments available. This may include other types of hormone therapy, chemotherapy or a new treatment as part of a clinical trial.
Find out more about Second line hormone therapy and further treatment options
Chemotherapy uses anti-cancer (cytotoxic) drugs to kill cancer cells. It doesn’t cure prostate cancer but can help to control symptoms. It may also help some men to live longer. You may have chemotherapy alongside other treatments such as palliative radiotherapy, bisphosphonates, pain-relieving drugs, and steroids.
Find out more about Chemotherapy
Abiraterone (Zytiga®) is a new type of hormone therapy for men whose prostate cancer has spread to other parts of the body (advanced prostate cancer) and has stopped responding to other hormone therapy treatments. It is used to help control symptoms and not to cure prostate cancer.Find out more about Abiraterone
You may hear stories in the news about new treatments for prostate cancer that has spread outside of the prostate gland (advanced prostate cancer). For example, you might have heard about a new type of chemotherapy called cabazitaxel (Jetvana®).Find out more about New treatments
If you have prostate cancer, you might have the chance to take part in a clinical trial. A clinical trial is a type of medical research. It aims to find new and improved ways of preventing, diagnosing, treating and controlling illnesses. Clinical trials test medicines, medical procedures or medical equipment. People are involved in a controlled and carefully planned way. This is the best way of finding out whether a new treatment is better than the current standard treatment.Find out more about Clinical trials
Men with advanced prostate cancer may have radiotherapy to help relieve pain and other symptoms. You may hear this called palliative radiotherapy. Radiotherapy for advanced prostate cancer does not aim to get rid of your cancer but it can help to slow down its growth. You might have external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or a type of internal radiotherapy called radioisotope treatment.Find out more about Radiotherapy for advanced prostate cancer
Bisphosphonates are drugs that can be used to treat men whose prostate cancer has spread to the bones and is no longer responding to hormone therapy. They do not treat the cancer itself but they can help to relieve bone pain. Bisphosphonates may also help to prevent and slow down the breakdown of bone.
Find out more about Bisphosphonates